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Friday, January 4, 2013

Fixing permissions using inotify and ACLs

I was working on a shared hosting project and I noticed the permissions were getting a bit complicated.

For each website:
  • Each user must have read/write permission
  • Each user's group must have read/write permission (reseller access)
  • Apache must have read access
  • Would be nice if admins had read/write as well
New files can appear at any time, created by all those users, and it would be nice to keep trace of who created them. This is where ACLs kick in.

For the case above, you need this command:
setfacl -m 'u:www-data:r-X,g:example-group:rwX,g:sudo:rwX,o::---' "/srv/www/example.org/htdocs"

ACLs quirks

The problem with ACLs is that they are very fragile and a lot of programs don't propagate them, even if you specify default rules. For example, all programs that move instead of creating will honour the ACL of the directory in which the file was created and the destination. Hence, if you untar the whole website in the directory, the default permissions won't be applied.

Running a script

You could run a script that will loop through all your websites and force the permissions through a cron, but this is a slow process (around 2 minutes on my current setup with ~10 websites), there is a delay before it will run (15-30 minutes, depending on how you set it up), and it is very I/O intensive.

inotifywait

inotify is a library that can warn you if some event occurs on a file or in a folder (recursively). It can be very useful for various tasks like syncing files, doing backups, recording edits progress, etc. inotifywait it simply a program that will wait until the event occurs, so you can execute what you want after.

Watching specifically on CREATE and MOVE events, we can fix the permissions of only the files we need.

The event ATTRIB (chown, chmod, setfacl) was intentionally left out not to cause loops, but it could probably be worked around.

Included below is an example of watching two folders and the corresponding init script. Tested on Ubuntu.